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SAE steel grades

Iron alloy phases

Ferrite (α-iron, δ-iron)
Austenite (γ-iron)
Pearlite (88% ferrite, 12% cementite)
Martensite
Bainite
Ledeburite (ferrite-cementite eutectic, 4.3% carbon)
Cementite (iron carbide, Fe3C)

Steel classes

Crucible steel
Carbon steel (≤2.1% carbon; low alloy)

Spring steel (low or no alloy)

Alloy steel (contains non-carbon elements)

Maraging steel (contains nickel)
Stainless steel (contains ≥10.5% chromium)
Weathering steel
Tool steel (alloy steel for tools)
Other iron-based materials

Cast iron (>2.1% carbon)

Ductile iron
Gray iron
Malleable iron
White iron

Wrought iron (contains slag)

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) designates SAE steel grades. These are four digit numbers which represent chemical composition standards for steel specifications. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) originally started a very similar system. Over time they used the same numbers to refer to the same alloy, but the AISI system used a letter prefix to denote the steelmaking process. The prefix "C" denoted open-hearth furnace, electric arc furnace or basic oxygen furnace, while "E" denotes electric arc furnace steel.

Prior to 1995 the AISI was also involved, and the standard was designated the AISI/SAE steel grades. The AISI stopped being involved because it never wrote any of the specifications.

Contents

  • 1 Carbon and alloy steel
  • 2 Stainless steel
  • 3 High-strength low-alloy steel
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
    • 5.1 Notes
    • 5.2 Bibliography

Carbon and alloy steel

Carbon steels and alloy steels are designated by a four digit number, where the first digit indicates the main alloying element(s), the second digit indicates the secondary alloying element(s), and the last two digits indicate the amount of carbon, in hundredths of a percent by weight. For example, a 1060 steel is a plain-carbon steel containing 0.60 wt% C.

An "H" suffix can be added to any designation to denote hardenability is a major requirement. The chemical requirements are loosened but hardness values defined for various distances on a Jominy test.

Major classifications of steel
SAE designationType
1xxxCarbon steels
2xxxNickel steels
3xxxNickel-chromium steels
4xxxMolybdenum steels
5xxxChromium steels
6xxxChromium-vanadium steels
7xxxTungsten steels
8xxxNickel-chromium-vanadium steels
9xxxSilicon-manganese steels
Carbon and alloy steel grades
SAE designationType
Carbon steels
10xxPlain carbon (Mn 1.00% max)
11xxResulfurized
12xxResulfurized and rephosphorized
15xxPlain carbon (Mn 1.00% to 1.65%)
Manganese steels
13xxMn 1.75%
Nickel steels
23xxNi 3.50%
25xxNi 5.00%
Nickel-chromium steels
31xxNi 1.25%, Cr 0.65% or 0.80%
32xxNi 1.25%, Cr 1.07%
33xxNi 3.50%, Cr 1.50% or 1.57%
34xxNi 3.00%, Cr 0.77%
Molybdenum steels
40xxMo 0.20% or 0.25% or 0.25% Mo & 0.042 S
44xxMo 0.40% or 0.52%
Chromium-molybdenum (Chromoly) steels
41xxCr 0.50% or 0.80% or 0.95%, Mo 0.12% or 0.20% or 0.25% or 0.30%
Nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels
43xxNi 1.82%, Cr 0.50% to 0.80%, Mo 0.25%
43BVxxNi 1.82%, Cr 0.50%, Mo 0.12% or 0.35%, V 0.03% min
47xxNi 1.05%, Cr 0.45%, Mo 0.20% or 0.35%
81xxNi 0.30%, Cr 0.40%, Mo 0.12%
81BxxNi 0.30%, Cr 0.45%, Mo 0.12%
86xxNi 0.55%, Cr 0.50%, Mo 0.20%
87xxNi 0.55%, Cr 0.50%, Mo 0.25%
88xxNi 0.55%, Cr 0.50%, Mo 0.35%
93xxNi 3.25%, Cr 1.20%, Mo 0.12%
94xxNi 0.45%, Cr 0.40%, Mo 0.12%
97xxNi 0.55%, Cr 0.20%, Mo 0.20%
98xxNi 1.00%, Cr 0.80%, Mo 0.25%
Nickel-molybdenum steels
46xxNi 0.85% or 1.82%, Mo 0.20% or 0.25%
48xxNi 3.50%, Mo 0.25%
Chromium steels
50xxCr 0.27% or 0.40% or 0.50% or 0.65%
50xxxCr 0.50%, C 1.00% min
50BxxCr 0.28% or 0.50%
51xxCr 0.80% or 0.87% or 0.92% or 1.00% or 1.05%
51xxxCr 1.02%, C 1.00% min
51BxxCr 0.80%
52xxxCr 1.45%, C 1.00% min
Chromium-vanadium steels
61xxCr 0.60% or 0.80% or 0.95%, V 0.10% or 0.15% min
Tungsten-chromium steels
72xxW 1.75%, Cr 0.75%
Silicon-manganese steels
92xxSi 1.40% or 2.00%, Mn 0.65% or 0.82% or 0.85%, Cr 0.00% or 0.65%
High-strength low-alloy steels
9xxVarious SAE grades
xxBxxBoron steels
xxLxxLeaded steels



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