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Behavioral characteristics of hybrid girders according to type of steel–concre
ABSTRACT:Abstract(#br)The design of the reinforcement in the transition zone of hybrid girders (i.e., girders composed of concrete girders and steel girders) in terms of the resistance to the transferred load is critical to ensure the integrity of the structure. Although the availability of various types of reinforcement in the transition zone, existing design guidelines are insufficient with regard to the various reinforcing methodologies. To address this shortcoming, this paper focuses on the behavioral characteristics of hybrid girders with respect to prestressing and three types of connections. Flexural tests were conducted using nine hybrid girder specimens that were designed and fabricated using different combinations of shear studs, anchors, lap joints, and prestressing techniques to achieve the steel-to-concrete connection. A numerical model also is proposed to predict the nonlinear flexural behavior of hybrid girders based on the test results and conventional strain compatibility. The results are used to evaluate the contribution of each component of the connection and derive the combination that best provides resistance for hybrid girders.